Translated, with Introduction and Notes by ERIK ZÜRCHER
The Diary of Oral Admonitions (Kouduo richao) is an invaluable mirror of early Chinese Christianity, as it stands out as the only source that allows a glimpse of Jesuit missionary practice in China on a local level – “accommodation in action” – and of the various responses of the Chinese audience, both converts and interested outsiders. It is a compilation of some five hundred notes “about everything” made by Li Jiubiao 李九標 and other Christian literati during their conversations with Jesuit missionaries in Fujian between 1630 and 1640. These notes are arranged in chronological order and divided into eight books.
The most important Western protagonist in the Diary is the Italian Jesuit Giulio Aleni (1589–1642), called “Master Ai (Rulüe 艾儒略)” in Chinese. The present study and translation of the Diary of Oral Admonitions can be seen as a companion volume to the proceedings of an international conference that was held on Aleni in his native place Brescia in 1994, also published in the Monumenta Serica Monograph Series XLII: “Scholar from the West.” Giulio Aleni S.J. (1582–1649) and the Dialogue between China and Christianity, 1997.
The present work in two volumes is meant to be a tool for further research. Volume 1 presents a comprehensive introduction to the Diary and its historical context, followed by the annotated translation, both by Erik Zürcher (Leiden), a renown specialist for the study of Christianity in China. It is enhanced by illustrations, partly in colour, and maps. Volume 2 includes a facsimile of the Chinese text (reproducing a copy held in the Roman Archives of the Society of Jesus), a bibliography of Chinese and Western sources as well as secondary literature, and an analytical index with glossary that will enable the reader to trace specific data in the text.
"The present edition, carefully translated and annotated by the late Erik Zürcher, Professor Emeritus of Sinology at Leiden University, represents an invaluable contribution to scholarship. ... We are all indebted to Monumenta Serica and to the translator for bringing out this handsome edition, with full introduction, notes, translation, reproduction of the original Chinese text, as well as a full scholarly apparatus."
R. Po-chia Hsia in Archivum Historicum S.I.
I. The Text (9)
Prologue: Fuzhou 1628/1629 (9); The Nature of the Diary and its Limitations (11); Title, Composition, and Successive Editions (14); Time Span and Geographical Range (21); Types of Entries: Dialogues, Stories, and Sermons (22); Intended Readership (25); The Diary and the Recorded Sayings (27)
II. The Scene (29)
Fujian as a Missionary Region (29); Church and Residence (33); Local Christian Communities and Associations (43); Christian Households (45)
III. The Actors: Missionaries (51)
The Scholars from the West (51); Giulio Aleni (Ai Rulüe, 1582–1649) (54); Andrzej Rudomina (Lu Ande, 1594–1632) (74); Bento de Mattos (Lin Bendu, 1600–1651) (76); Simão da Cunha (Qu Ximan, 1589–1660) (77)
IV. The Actors: Converts (77)
Numbers, Composition, and Geographical Distribution (77); Haikou: Stephen Li Jiubiao (d. 1647) and Thomas Li Jiugong (d. 1681) (80); Quanzhou: Matthew Zhang Geng (ca. 1570–1646/1647) (86); Zhangzhou: Ambrose Yan Zanhua (d. ca. 1695) (94); Jianning: Stephen Li Sixuan (d. after 1661) (97)
V. The Actors: Outsiders (102)
VI. Doctrine (106)
The First Steps: “Entering the Doctrine” (106); The Lord of Heaven: Creator, Great Parent, and Supreme Ruler (113); Incarnation, Passion, and Redemption (118); Supernatural Powers of Good and Evil: Angels and Devils (121); Mediators and Patrons: The Holy Mother and All the Saints (126); Death and the Hereafter (136); Body and Soul (142); Merit and Grace, Sin and Penance (148)
VII. Communial Rituals: Holy Mass and Funeral (156)
VIII. Social Aspects (162)
Tension and Conflict (162); Gender Relations: Marriage and the Prohibition of Concubinage (164); Social Inequality: In Praise of Poverty (167)
IX. "Western Studies" (169)
(Pre)history, Science, and Technology (169) The Sciences and the Primacy of Religion (169); Prehistory: “The Chronicles of Judea” (171); Natural Science (173)
Appendix: In memoriam Giulio Alleni by Antonio de Goueva (176)
The Diary of Oral Admonitions - Annotated Translation
Preface by Zhang Geng 181
Preface by Lin Yijun 183
Brief Intriduction by Li Jiubio 186
Editorial Principles (fanli) 188
Book I (13 March 1630 - 24 March 1631) 191
Book II (1 May - 28 November 1631) 253
Book III (7 January - 12 September 1632) 319
Book IV (14 March - 16 October 1633) 379
Book V (24 November 1633 - 29 June 1634) 427
Book VI (29 July 1634 - 25 September 1636) 475
Book VII (22 January - 28 October 1637) 523
Book VIII (23 September 1638 - 4 July 1640) 571
The Chinese Text of Kouduo richao (619)
Index and Glossary (815